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Title: Herianouphis
Subtitle: Pastor et nauta
Author(s): HAUBEN, Hans
Journal: Ancient Society
Volume: 53    Date: 2023   
Pages: 55-97
DOI: 10.2143/AS.53.0.3292437

Abstract :
Swineherd as well as river captain, on occasion proudly labelling himself 'sailor', the Egyptian Herianouphis appears in six documents of the Zenon Archive. All seem to belong to the period when Zenon was manager of Apollonios’ Philadelpheian dôrea (256-247), although only one can be dated with absolute certainty, viz. to 5 August 248 BC. Basically prosopographical, this study also deals with pigs and ships, exploring Herianouphis’ occupations and resources as a humble but vital member of Zenon’s entourage. Crucial for the development of Apollonios’ Large Estate (Rostovtzeff), livestock breeding and river transport occupied an important if not always easy to determine place in Zenon’s private enterprises as well. Special attention is devoted to P. Lond. VII 2007, obviously the last, but by far the most intriguing item of the file, dating from the 14th of December, in all probability of the year 248. Ambiguities, partly due to clumsy phrasing, continue to challenge the reader to a more thorough analysis. Reporting Herianouphis’ flight to 'the King’s altar' — a kind of early anachôrêsis — the letter unintentionally points up some less agreeable traits of Zenon’s managing practices, as well as the precarious working conditions of his often native subjects. Meanwhile an attempt is made to reconstruct Herianouphis’ career and to discover what exactly may have caused his rather unusual move, one of the rare individual acts of defiance against Zenon and the system he represented.

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