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Document Details :

Title: The Fruition in a Comparative Perspective
Author(s): ESLER, Dylan
Journal: Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies
Volume: 40    Date: 2017   
Pages: 159-188
DOI: 10.2143/JIABS.40.0.3269007

Abstract :
If 'all roads lead to Rome' (or did so in the days of the Roman Empire), all paths do not lead to enlightenment – at least not to the same enlightenment. This, in any case, is the conclusion we must derive from reading gNubs-chen Sangs-rgyas ye-shes’ doxographical work, the bSam-gtan mig-sgron (Tibet, 10th century). In it he presents four distinct ways to reach enlightenment that encompass both sūtra-based and tantra-based doctrinal formulations: the gradual approach of the classical Mahāyāna, the simultaneous approach of Chan, the method of alchemical transformation of Tantra and the path of self-liberation, rDzogs-chen. These four different paths lead to distinct forms of fruition (’bras-bu; Skt. phala). It is the latter that will be the focus of the present article.

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