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Document Details :

Title: Crusaders and Byzantines in Central Greece
Subtitle: The Archaeology and Topography of a Late Medieval Frontier
Journal: Pharos
Volume: 24    Date: 2018-2020   
Pages: 1-36
DOI: 10.2143/PHA.24.0.3289830

Abstract :
Through much of the 13th and 14th centuries the mountainous region around the overland passage of Thermopylae formed the Crusader-Byzantine border in Western Central Greece. This frontier served as the dividing line between two opposite worlds until the final Ottoman conquest in 1414. During this turbulent period, Byzantines, Crusaders, and Catalans fought over the region. They left their mark on the landscape in the form of fortifications, settlements, monasteries, churches, and production sites. Many of these structures dot the local rural scenery to this day. Nevertheless, not much of the geopolitical and economic role of these sites is known, while their potential connection to the frontier lordships and their cultural landscape remains largely an open research question. In this paper, I attempt to shed light on the diverse cultural, political, economic and religious character of this border region and try to understand the influence of local topography on the creation of the frontier along with its unique characteristics.

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