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Document Details :

Title: The glorious years leading Doppler flow to the heart, the odyssey of the pioneers!
Author(s): C. Veyrat
Journal: Acta Cardiologica
Volume: 69    Issue: 4   Date: 2014   
Pages: 351-365
DOI: 10.2143/AC.69.4.3036650

Abstract :
This review pays tribute to those pioneers in Doppler flow during an early and exciting period ranging from the end of the 1960s to the 1990s. Three major ‘approaches’ contributed to what is nowadays built into every patient’s investigation. The source was Daniel Kalmanson, who developed flow directionality, assigning a physiological meaning to the recordings. This was the first time Doppler flow was used on the heart, providing new insights in cardiac pathophysiology. The second approach relied on the Norwegian group who applied the laws of physics to fluid dynamics. Simplification of the formula provided a new non-invasive approach enabling quantification of valvular lesions and haemodynamic measurements. This new tool pushed back previous routine catheterisation. To crown it all, the introduction of colour Doppler flow, mainly relying on the Japanese groups, overcame the long-lasting scepticism of the scientific community: cardiologists started to 'believe' in the Doppler technique. Other innovative pioneers around the world joined the three groups to develop this new field of cardiology. At the turning of the new millennium, the Doppler technique is mature, through a strong methodology. Convergence of the three original approaches for mutual benefit, constant update of examination modalities according to improved technology, and new insights into cardiac dynamics, are the three cornerstones supporting this methodology. They should contribute to keep it alive and efficient, independently of the imaging modality of the future.