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Title: Elevated serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity in patients with cardiac syndrome X and its relationship with carotid intima media thickness
Author(s): J. Yagmur , N. Ermis , N. Acikgoz , M. Cansel , H. Atas , Y. Karakus , H. Pekdemir , R. Ozdemir
Journal: Acta Cardiologica
Volume: 65    Issue: 5   Date: 2010   
Pages: 515-519
DOI: 10.2143/AC.65.5.2056237

Abstract :
Objectives — We aimed to evaluate serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity and its relationship with carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX).
Methods — The study population consisted of 40 patients with CSX, 35 controls and 40 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). All patients underwent a noninvasive stress test and conventional coronary angiography. Serum GGT and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured and CIMT was assessed in all subjects.
Results — Serum GGT activity was higher in the CSX and the CAD groups than in the control group (32.6 ± 16.0 and 30.4 ± 15.3 U/L, respectively, vs. 17.9 ± 4.2 U/L; P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in serum GGT activity between the CSX and the CAD groups. When compared to the control group, serum CRP levels were significantly increased in both the CSX and the CAD groups (4.1 ± 2.0 and 4.7 ± 2.6 mg/L, respectively, vs. 2.2 ± 1.8 mg/L; P < 0.001). Patients with CSX and CAD had significantly higher CIMT values than the controls (0.74 ± 0.17 and 0.94 ± 0.12 mm, respectively, vs. 0.62 ± 0.08 mm; P < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between GGT activity and CIMT measurements (r = 0.640, P < 0.001), but serum GGT activity did not correlate with serum CRP levels in patients with CSX (r = 0.277, P > 0.05).
Conclusions — The present study showed that serum GGT activity in patients with CSX was as high as those in patients with CAD. Increased GGT levels may play a role in the pathogenesis of the microvascular atherosclerotic process of CSX.