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Document Details :
Title: Effects of Non-heavy Smoking on High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Healthy Turkish Young Men
Author(s): BARCIN, Cem , TAPAN, Serkan , KURSAKIOGLU, Hurkan , IYISOY, Atila , OLCAY, Ayhan , ERBIL, M. Kemal , ISIK, Ersoy
Journal: Acta Cardiologica
Volume: 61 Issue: 4 Date: August 2006
Objective — Decreased effects of smoking on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were demonstrated in subjects smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day. We aimed to evaluate the effects of non-heavy smoking (≤ 20 cigarettes a day) on HDL-c in young, healthy men who are similar in terms of age, physical activity and diet.
Methods — A total of 1012 male students between 19 and 25 years old (21.4 ± 1.5) in a military college who do not smoke or smoking ≤ 20 cigarettes a day were enrolled. Subjects who were consuming alcohol were excluded. Smoking levels (0:nonsmoker,1:1-5 cigarettes, 2:6-10 cigarettes, 3:11-20 cigarettes a day) and duration were obtained by a questionnaire. Blood samples were taken after an over-night fasting. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were reported.
Results — HDL-c showed a stepwise decrease as the level of smoking increased (49 ± 9 mg/dL in level 0, 47 ± 7 mg/dL in level 1, 46 ± 8 mg/dL in level 2, 45 ± 7 mg/dL in level 3, p < 0.001). Total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density cholesterol were not different among the smoking levels. Body mass index (BMI) and waist/hip ratio were found to be slightly decreased in smokers. In a multivariate regression model including smoking level, duration, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, smoking level was the only predictor of HDL-c (B= –1.407, p < 0.001).
Conclusion — Smoking, even in relatively low levels, has a negative stepwise relationship with HDL-c in a homogeneous population of healthy young men in whom other major non-genetic factors that are known to affect HDL-c levels are identical.