|next article in this issue|
Document Details :
Title: Ottoman Occupation of Bilad Al-Sham and its Immediate Results
Subtitle: Introductory Remarks
Author(s): ZIADEH, Nicola
Journal: ARAM Periodical
Volume: 10 Issue: 1-2 Date: 1998
In the early years of the 16th century the area stretching from the eastern coasts of the Mediterranean and eastern Iran and from the Balkans to the Hijaz was controlled by three powers: The Mamluks, The Safavids and The Ottomans. The Mamluks (1250-1517) established their authority first in Cairo in 1250 and expanded gradually into Bilad al-Sham and Armenia and later were recognised as rulers of the Hijaz. During the 13th and 14th centuries their authority was fairly well established and as they sat astride the trade routes which connected the Indian Ocean and Europe they benefited from commerce carried from the former to the latter, in particular in the spices and pepper, which were carried through their domain. In the 15th century, however, their rule was troubled by their continuous intestine quarrels.